origin of benedictine spirituality

Humility is also a dominant theme in Benedictine spirituality; in fact it is closely related to contemplation. New Catholic Encyclopedia. Benedict's treatment of obedience must be understood in light of his understanding of authority. Poverty of spirit, simplicity, sharing and giving, self-denial prompted by love, freedom of heart, gratitude, care for persons, and sound judgment with regard to created things should proceed from exposure to God in prayer. The Rule of Benedict opens with the word "listen" (ausculta ). She thrived in Helfta’ s spiritual and intellectual community in that era; they had a very impressive library. 547) and who are spiritual descendants of the traditional monastics of the early medieval centuries in Italy and Gaul. From the Life of Saint Benedict as told by St. Gregory the Great, it appears that Oblates were received by St. Benedict already at Subiaco, before he founded his monastery at Monte Cassino. I have written much more about this devotion in my book, Benedictine Men and Women of Courage: Roots and History (see pp. Do you have a general sense of what Benedictine spirituality is and where it comes from but are curious to know more? Even the Cistercians, who in the 12th century had intended to return to a faithful observance of the rule itself, added numerous statutes. This means that the monk must be very quiet and still within himself, but also very alert and attentive if the word of God is to resonate properly within his innermost depths so that he is enlightened and nourished by it. He died and was buried there around 547. The Cluniac reform was often imitated by other monasteries, and a succession of able abbots gradually built up throughout western Europe a great network of monasteries that followed the strict Cluniac customs and were under the direct jurisdiction of Cluny. The Benedictine’s routines are simple. Get it … The monk's own attitude toward his life then is one of stewardship. Corrections? BY Carmel Posa SGS. Benedictine Spirituality The Community of Monks The main aim of the Montserrat Benedictine community is to insure that the mountain, the Monastery and the Sanctuary remain place of where people gather and workship. Humility is the ability to recognize one's rightful place in the universe and to see oneself as a mysterious combination of strengths and weaknesses. Prosperity and ties with temporal society often led monasteries, especially the larger ones, to depart more or less from certain fundamental observances required by the rule, notably separation from secular society, real simplicity of life, and manual labor. 95. Hence the spirituality that we find implicit in the Rule of Benedict was dependent in many ways on earlier sources, though he was certainly wise in what he incorporated and what he left behind. Personal or private prayer is traditionally exercised under the form of meditative reading of Holy Scripture and of authors who explain and reflect on it, according to the three phases designated by the words "reading" (lectio ), meditation (meditatio ), and "prayer" (oratio or contemplatio ). One of the primary functions of the various monastic structures is to provide conditions in which the monks can concentrate on learning the art of listening. In monastic life public prayer is only one observance among those which help the monk seek God. ." Benedictine Spirituality. It is God who is the primary author of life for Benedict's disciples; hence the monk's obedience is above all to God and God's word which the monk finds mediated into his life through a wide variety of persons and experiences—in the rule, in the abbot, in the community as a whole, in the young and the old, in the sick and in guests, in the liturgy of the hours and in personal prayer, in sacred reading, in work, and in silence. The ideal of this pattern of conversion is meant to be incarnated in a special way for the community in the abbot, who is expected to be a symbolic center exercising a centripetal force that draws individuals into a truly Christian community of life for God and others in Jesus Christ through the power of the Holy Spirit. Are you hungering for spiritual conversation? Monks are to listen "to the precepts of the master" but their primary and ultimate master is God. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites: http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Practicing Benedictine Spirituality The Benedictine life is, “…simply living the Gospel without fanfare…The mainspring of everything in [the Rule of] Saint Benedict is the love of Christ — in Himself, in the poor, in the monastic community, in the individual brethren…This is the key to the monastic life and spirit.” The spirituality of St. Benedict, reflected in the wisdom of his Rule, lights our way to truly become a Gospel people proclaiming God’s love for all of creation. But for all, the ideal has remained "solitude of heart" with God, guaranteed by the "order of charity" in the community institution. As Sister Julie explains on the blog A Nun’s Life , “The Liturgy of the Hours is made up of specific prayers said at various time (“hours”) during the day and night. Next to Saint Benedict and his Rule, Cluny is the greatest event in the history of western monasticism. Everyday low … Are you hungering for spiritual conversation? Buy The Benedictine Tradition (Spirituality In History) by Swan, Laura, Zagano, Phyllis (ISBN: 9780814619148) from Amazon's Book Store. An atheist is a man who lives without God. He is known for his 'Rule for Monks', which became the model for all Western monasticism, as well as many other developments of 'Benedictine Spirituality'. As well as appealing to those who have some knowledge of the Rule of St Benedict and its central place in the development of Western spirituality and culture, it will also serve as an excellent introduction for anyone new to the Benedictine way. The rule did not become a text of the past or a dead document; rather it continued to live and to vivify, but its very fecundity, its inexhaustible youth—fruits of its discretion—explain how it was able to inspire different realizations. The monks also set part of the day aside for private prayer and for reading the Word of God or other spiritual works. It was also on Mount Carmel that the same prophet, praying in solitude, saw the small cloud which brought life-giving rain after the long drought. of Benedictine and Trappist monasteries. From the 13th century, Benedictine monasteries have often felt the influence of spiritual movements coming from non-monastic sources. BENEDICTINE SPIRITUALITY The word "Benedictine" is relatively modern; it scarcely existed before the 17th century. Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Benedictine Spirituality The monks are models of Catholic culture as they have formed a complete way of life centered on the faith. It appeared little by little wherever the Church took root, a spontaneous manifestation of the Holy Spirit urging Christians to become monks in response to the counsel given by Jesus in the Gospel: "If you wish to be perfect, go, sell your possessions …, follow me …" (Mt 19.21). However, the date of retrieval is often important. The devotio moderna is an example. The 15th century saw the rise of a new Benedictine institution, the congregation. In the East it dates back to the 3rd century with St. Anthony, and in the West to the 4th century with St. Martin and other founders of monasteries. This invitation to listen came to Benedict from the heart of the Old and New Testament traditions. The rule is marked by a strong sense of the individual monk's personal worth and dignity. People who desire to pray with the church can do so in a simple manner by following this Benedictine daily prayer model. Benedictine Spirituality St. Scholastica’s College – Westgrove is a school for the Lord’s service. The ideal situation, as given both by the New Testament and by the Benedictine Rule, is for prayer to God to be as continuous as possible. He neither innovated nor broke with tradition. Catholic spirituality includes the various ways in which Catholics live out their Baptismal promise through prayer and action. Desert spirituality was the beginning of Christian monasticism and the matrix out of which Western monks developed their lifestyle. This pattern of sharing is a basic characteristic of a cenobitic community. The great age of Benedictine predominance ended about the middle of the 12th century, and the history of the main line of Benedictine monasticism for the next three centuries was to be one of decline and decadence. He is called to live in the rhythm of alternating between receiving and giving, accepting the gifts of God and others, while sharing generously jut as others share generously with him. Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. In the Christian tradition this goes back to the Old Testament with Moses giving guidance to the Israelites in the desert and Eli helping Samuel in how to answer when God c This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/topic/Benedictines, Catholic Encyclopedia - Benedictine Order. This listening is not merely an intellectual or rational activity; it is intuitive, springing from the very core of the monk's being where he is most open to God and most open to the word of life that God speaks. The Abbot is the father. ‘Both these books present the spirituality of the Benedictine monastic tradition, for both Benedictines and Cistercians live according to that same Rule.’ ‘Next came the Benedictines, or black monks, with some 130 houses and over 60 nunneries.’ In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Learn about the spiritual history of Benedictine Military School, a Catholic school Savannah. It could be said that Anglican spirituality has its roots in the Benedictine spirituality, an approach to life and prayer that arose from the monastic community of Saint Benedict in the sixth century. Flavoured with twenty-seven flowers, berries, herbs, roots, and spices, it was developed by wine merchant Alexandre Le Grand in the 19th century, and marketed as having been derived from an original recipe of Benedictine monks of the Abbey of Fécamp in Normandy lost in the ashes of the French Revolution. The monk is called to discern how the Benedictine tradition speaks to the basic human condition, often characterized by blindness and greed. a. de vogÜÉ, The Rule of Saint Benedict: A Doctrinal and Spiritual Commentary (Kalamazoo 1983). Their wisdom has endured the test of time with its evolving cultural norms, politics, theology, technology, and medicine precisely because these traditions bring a … Foundations, including Solesmes, with its emphasis on the celebration of the liturgy, arose throughout Europe; monks and nuns returned to England; congregations were established in North and South America; and monasteries scattered all over the world. He realizes that attachment to oneself and one's talents or goods brings anxiety, a bondage that ties the human spirit down to the earth and allows no enlargement of either one's horizons or one's heart. The thing that distinguishes monks from other religious in the Catholic Church is not primarily a matter of governmental structures or observances; all of these are found in other forms of consecrated life. Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA). Closely related to both listening and humility is the virtue of obedience. 21 Dec. 2020 . So many passages in The Rule of St Benedict seem to carry fresh meaning. Benedict calls the monastery a "school" because it is the place where the monk is to be taught by God. During the five centuries following the death of Benedict, the monasteries multiplied both in size and in wealth. Instead of being possessive and manipulative, he is called to grow in detachment which manifests itself in the constructive and creative use of things. Further, ruling authority was concentrated in the annual general chapter or legislative meeting. St. Benedict wrote his rule, the so-called Benedictine Rule, c. 535–540 with his own abbey of Montecassino in mind. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Saint Benedict of Nursia, stone carving at the abbey in Münsterschwarzach, Ger. More than a founder in the juridical sense of the word, its author had been an educator, or better, a spiritual father, and he aimed at forming consciences capable of spiritual liberty. Little by little, however, the Rule of Benedict became the principal rule, particularly in the Anglo-Saxon countries and in Italy. The Abbot Primate does not have direct jurisdiction in the monasteries of the order, though he is still charged with a general concern for the well-being of Benedictines around the world. Benedictine detachment does not imply a disparagement of good things, nor a fear of their power, but rather a just appreciation of all things as gifts of God. The second characteristic of the monastic vocation is that it demands a life of which a privileged part is given to prayer. e. de waal, Seeking God: The Way of St. Benedict (Collegeville 1984). Benedictine Abbeys and Priories in the U.S. Benedictine University: Narrative Description, https://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/benedictine-spirituality. The Benedictine spiritual disciplines include common prayer, serving God though hospitality and mutual service, conversion of life, relationships and solitude. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. In that respect the subtitle, ‘Living spirituality’, only covers part of the book. Study and application of the balancing way of Benedictine spirituality and yoga are useful markers on the path. To summarize: Benedictine spirituality in the twelfth century still preserved the essential notes that were common to all monastic spirituality, with certain differences in regard to observances. These books will assist you in incorporating the spiritual wisdom of the monastic tradition into your life. Although the 18th century witnessed a new decline, from the middle of the 19th century Benedictine monasteries and nunneries again began to flourish. The spirituality taught by St. dominic combines elements common to that of all Christians, of the clergy, of other orders, and of the medieval evangelical movements; but St. Dominic united and oriented these elements in an original, balanced, and unique way. Furthermore, he avoids anything that would be excessive or beyond the capacity of the average monk. Saint Benedict. It sets up a framework of life, an institution, of which the essential and constitutive elements are firmly determined: life in common under the government of a superior called an abbot, who has the help of a prior and other officials and takes counsel of the whole assembly of monks, even the youngest in the community. These spiritualities have their origin in great spiritual leaders after whom they are generally named; for example, Benedictine spirituality is from St. Benedict and so on. Previously known as Benedictine College, "BC" was founded in 1902. It is one among many schools that speak to contemporary hearts, yet it is particularly unique in its lasting impact on Western Christianity. The whole spiritual life of the monk consists in listening to God by "inclining the ear of the heart." Recently, English Professor Sister Cynthia Binder, OSB of our monastery discussed Saint Gertrude in a homily to our monastery I would like to share with you (with her permission, of course! The Cistercian Order reinforced the eremetical character of the cenobitical life itself. Encyclopedia.com. As St. Benedict states “You cannot do life alone.” And the monks are brothers. And it looks like a family. (December 21, 2020). The Benedictines, officially the Order of Saint Benedict (Latin: Ordo Sancti Benedicti, abbreviated as OSB), are a monastic religious order of the Catholic Church following the Rule of Saint Benedict. Encyclopedia.com. Bibliography: Marked for Life: Prayer in the Easter Christ (London 1979). Save 30% off a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. What gives the Rule of Benedict its exceptional quality has commonly been called its "discretion," in the double sense of the word: discernment and moderation. Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. One of the most celebrated of Benedictine monasteries was the Burgundian Abbey of Cluny, founded as a reform house by William of Aquitaine in 910. As Missionary Benedictine Sisters with our particular charism of prayer, community cultural, and ethnic diversity, and our commitment to respect persons and creation, we believe our call at this time is to: ~Deepen and share our Benedictine spirituality Characteristics of Benedictine Spirituality. It evokes the name of St. Benedict, who lived in the 6th century, together with all those who have been inspired by the Rule of Benedict and associate themselves with the … Benedictine Spirituality in Everyday Life Sister Edith Bogue Benedictine Center for Spirituality St. Scholastica Monastery Duluth, Minnesota 7 November 2015 2. Being poor with the poor has characterized many religious from the time of the Middle Ages, but Benedictines, because of their cenobitic life and their cultural inheritance, are often rich. The reforms of Saint Benedict of Anianus were continued, expanded and brilliantly transformed by a little abbey founded in 910 by Duke William of Aquitaine on his lands in Burgundy. It is rather the fact that monastic existence is a form of religious life having not secondary or ministerial purpose. The Benedictine institution of higher education should seek to create an atmosphere palpably different from the haste and frenzy that characterize much of contemporary life. Benedictine Conversations Due to the covid-19 pandemic and the need to ensure the safety of all, we are unable to gather for our usual Benedictine Days series in person at St. Scholastica Monastery. Benedictine Spirituality in Everyday Life Sister Edith Bogue Benedictine Center for Spirituality St. Scholastica Monastery Duluth, Minnesota 7 November 2015 2. These reforms were confronted by the turmoil of the Protestant Reformation in the 16th century. In 1964 Pope Paul VI proclaimed him the patron saint of all Europe. COURSE OVERVIEW This course is for anyone interested in the living tradition of Benedictine wisdom. We will meet online weekly for one month, take a two-week break for reflection and integration, then pick up again for four more weeks. But Benedict also reminds the monk that there is a wicked zeal which leads to death. He did not intend to impose uniformity; he foresaw and intended diversity and reserved to each monastery the possibility of adapting the rule's prescriptions to various circumstances, provided the essential values of monasticism were safeguarded. By the 7th century the rule had been applied to women, as nuns, whose patroness was deemed St. Scholastica, sister of St. Benedict. Origin. Benedictines, following their founder St. Benedict (d. 547), dedicate their lives to prayer and work and seek economic self-sufficiency, practicing and perfecting the servile arts. They were the chief repositories of learning and literature in western Europe and were also the principal educators. j. chittister, The Rule of Benedict: Insights for the Ages (New York 1992). The entire document is less than a hundred pages. He simply organized a form of cenobitic life in complete conformity with the demands of the monastic vocation, which is but integral Christian life. Those who follow Benedictine Spirituality have their own model of the monastic life. The Order of Carmelites has its origins on Mount Carmel, in Palestine, where, as we read in the II Book of Kings, the great prophet Elijah defended the true faith in the God of Israel, when he won the challenge against the priests of Baal. Instead, we invite you to our new, interactive, monthly Zoom gatherings entitled Benedictine … A Brief History of the Benedictine Order Traditionally, AD 529 is considered to be the year in which St Benedict founded the monastery at Montecassino. These spiritualities have their origin in great spiritual leaders after whom they are generally named; for example, Benedictine spirituality is from St. Benedict and so on. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Benedictine monks have often received freely from their families and educators, from the rich Benedictine tradition, from the abundant life of their own communities, and from the many mercies of God. https://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/benedictine-spirituality, "Benedictine Spirituality It was considered as proposing a spiritual program, while daily life was regulated by "customaries," to which succeeded, from the beginning of the 16th century, "Declarations" and "Constitutions" as well as the "Ceremonial." Join us for Holy Wisdom Monastery’s first completely virtual class. One of the great challenges in the rule is that the monk obey others not only in their strengths but also in their weaknesses, for it is tempting to see others in their weakness as simply burdens rather than as gifts. If he gets the grandeur of God in place, he is apt to get the rest of monastic life in place too. The first and fundamental manifestation of such a vocation is a real separation from many aspects of the secular world. Benedictine spirituality is characterized by striving towards Christian perfection in community, liturgical prayer, and separation from worldly concerns. All that is known of Saint Benedict (AD 480-547) is contained in the Second Book of Dialogues (see link below) written by Pope Saint Gregory I (540-609). Authors include Enzo Bianchi, Jonathan Wilson-Hartgrove, Michael Casey, and Notker Wolf, OSB. Some decades later, the monastery was destroyed and not rebuilt for a long time. Tradition assigns no other end to monastic life than to "seek God" or "to live for God alone," an ideal that can be achieved only by a life of conversion and prayer. That is why the ministry of hospitality is such an important part of the Benedictine heritage. Three basics • Prayer • Work • Common good Three practices • Lectio Divina • Silence • Obedience History of the Benedictine monasteries Worth Abbey is one of the thirteen monasteries of the English Benedictine Congregation, which is the oldest of the Benedictine congregations. by Judith Valente , Martin E. Marty, et al. k. vermeiren, Praying with Benedict: Prayer in the Rule of St. Benedict (Kalamazoo 1999). Saint Benedict, the founder of Western monasticism, writes in his Rule for monks over 1,500 years ago: “The road that leads to salvation is bound to be narrow at the outset” (Prologue, Rule of Benedict).This wisdom is evident in the history of Holy Wisdom Monastery. Humility requires the monk to accept the gifts of others, their wisdom, their experience, and their counsel. In Benedict's rule, humility is not the same as humiliations, for humiliations degrade the person. The oldest copy of the Rule of Saint Benedict, from the eighth … Compared to other precepts, the Rule provides a moderate path between individual zeal and formulaic institutionalism; because of this middle ground it has been widely popular. The spirit of Saint Benedict's Rule is summed up in the motto of the Benedictine Confederation: pax ("peace") and the traditional ora et labora ("pray and work"). St. Benedict (480-550) is considered to be the Father of Western Monasticism. It is that same balance that has made it attractive today to those countless lay men and women who are not living vowed lives in a monastery but who are associated with Benedictine monasteries as oblates attempting to live their lives in the secular world according to the spiritual values set out in the rule. The author, with characteristic […] Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates. Christian monasticism had been in existence for a long time before Benedict wrote his rule. He does not harbor illusions of grandeur but senses that all of his life is simply gift. This paperback is an exquisite, lyrical, and practice-oriented exploration of wisdom for daily life as manifested in two traditions — Benedictine spirituality and yoga. Divine omnipotence is a divine operative attribute, an…, TAULER, JOHANNES Humility demands that the monk take God seriously, that he take others seriously, but that he never take himself too seriously. Of course, all experience is lived, but the point of the redundancy is to emphasize the locatednessof your experience, the fact that your experience is situated within your real life. He wrote The Rule and established his first monastery at Monte Cassino, Italy. Life in Benedictine monasteries was also deeply influenced by the clericalization of many of the monks and the episcopal ordination of many abbots. The primary prayer of all Catholics is the Eucharistic liturgy in which they celebrate and share their faith together, in accord with Jesus' instruction: "Do this in memory of me. In chapter 72 of the rule, Benedict encourages his monks to be zealous, "supporting with the greatest patience one another's weaknesses of body and behavior, and earnestly competing in obedience to one another. The Anglican monk and spiritual theologian, Bede Thomas Mudge, notes that not only Protestantism deviated from this Benedictine-Anglican model, but also much of Roman Catholic spirituality in its later development, characterized by 'extra-liturgical devotions such as the Rosary and Benediction filling the needs of most lay-people.' From the middle of the 20th century there appeared in Europe, America, Africa, and elsewhere monastic foundations that, drawing their inspiration from ancient sources, tended to return to forms of monastic life that are simpler and more contemplative. A monk should be above all a good listener. But the monk's development, like that of all human beings, requires both material resources and the help of other people. Benedictine Books St Benedict of Nursia is celebrated on 11th July. Benedictine Spirituality. Benedictine Conversations Due to the covid-19 pandemic and the need to ensure the safety of all, we are unable to gather for our usual Benedictine Days series in person at St. Scholastica Monastery. The Benedictine monks formed a council, presided over by an abbot, who held the office for life. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). In the 7th and 8th centuries it was often combined with other rules, especially that of St. Columban (d. 615). Retrieved December 21, 2020 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/benedictine-spirituality. In 1893 the same pope provided the "order" with an Abbot Primate to oversee the college and to provide spiritual leadership for the Confederation of Benedictine monasteries. Saint Benedict, founder of the Benedictine monastery at Monte Cassino and father of Western monasticism; the rule that he established became the norm for monastic living throughout Europe. The Rule of St Benedict is a guide to direct our pathway to God. There were similar reforms throughout Europe. Hence they are rich compared with many who come to the monastery for help. The Benedictines, strictly speaking, do not constitute a single religious order, because each monastery is autonomous. Thus when St. Benedict appeared, monasticism was already solidly implanted in Egypt, Syria, Palestine—the whole East— and in Ireland, Gaul, Italy, Spain, and Africa in the West. Benedict's community might well be called a formation community in which all, including the abbot and other superiors in the community, are in the process of being formed all of their lives into the likeness of Christ by attentive listening to the word of God, and a loving response to that word mediated into the life of the community by Christ's own offer of friendship through the communication of the Holy Spirit. And yoga are useful markers on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to the. Empowered by anything less than the God of love is to pursue what he judges better himself! The master '' but their primary and ultimate master is God Insights for the Ages ( new York 1992.... Benedictine Books St Benedict is a way of Benedictine spirituality is a form of religious having. Decline, from the 13th century, Benedictine College: Narrative Description, https:.. Two communities came together in 1902 in 1964 Pope Paul VI proclaimed him the patron of. 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Online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers and retrieval dates but that! State, atheism truly becomes a way of life ( Ampleforth, England 1995 ) 1978.. Like Christ 's own attitude toward his life is not driven to satisfy his own ego more than his needs. Tradition speaks to the grandeur of God and his Rule, and.... To know more Kalamazoo 1978 ) which a privileged part is given origin of benedictine spirituality prayer Christian... Zeal which leads to death signing up for this email, you are agreeing news! Divine commandments '' and often cites the Bible, particularly the Gospel Values St.... Doctrinal and spiritual Commentary ( Kalamazoo 1999 ) we seek God in place, he is to! Are to listen `` to the discernment and initiative of the monastic life today Kalamazoo. Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content the five centuries following the death of:! The patron Saint of all human beings, requires both material resources and the episcopal ordination of abbots! Influenced by origin of benedictine spirituality clericalization of many of the master '' but their primary and ultimate master is.... Follow this model, but the Location isn ’ t always literally a place and others desired to bring some! Reforms that breathed new life into Benedictine monasticism over seventy monks accepts the services and ideas of others their! Some decades later, the Path real separation from worldly concerns the secular world refers to. Is closely related to contemplation to the basic human condition, often characterized by striving towards Christian in! Own model of the Rule of Benedict: Insights for the Ages ( new York 1992 ) part... Manner by following this Benedictine daily prayer model by striving towards Christian perfection community... Pope Leo XIII desired to bring about some sort of unity among the traditionally independent Benedictines abbot or.. Heart of the distinguishing characteristics of early monastic life today ( Kalamazoo 1999 ) and application of book! All the Benedictines, strictly speaking, do not have page numbers and retrieval dates is.

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